CO2 hemp extraction, alcohol hemp extraction, butane/propane hemp extraction, and ice water extraction are the four main processes for cannabis extraction in the hemp industry. Each extraction process uses different types of machines and equipment, which we discuss in the following sections. CO2 Hemp Extraction Method • Under the CO2 hemp extraction method, there are five equipment types used, which include the BOSS CO2 Extraction System, CannabisSFE, the Hi-Flo FX2, Apeks Supercritical CO2 System, and the Super C Extractor. Equipment prices across those five vary, and the cost of some machines is even dependant on size. The Hi-Flo FX2 • The Hi-Flo FX2 is on the higher end in terms of price and costs about $175,000. Besides its higher cost, the largest model of this extractor also occupies a lot of space. Most important, though, it uses CO2 to deliver quick, efficient, and toxin-free (cannabidiol) CBD oil. • Some advantages of the Hi-Flo™ High-Performance Series include non-stop reliability due to its high-quality material and engineering design, simple operations following a centralized control center, and low maintenance costs due to CO2 recapturing and the absence of internal moving parts. • Disadvantages of the Hi-Flo™ High Performance Series include the need for a highly ventilated and controlled environment, unsuitable for small scale operators, high purchasing costs, and lower capacity when compared to other competitor products. The Boss CO2 Extraction System • The BOSS CO2 Extraction System is a highly automated material processing unit that costs approximately $250,000. • Advantages of the system include its relatively small footprint, modest energy costs, automated material loading and effectiveness without the use of “harmful solvents.” • Disadvantages: not appropriate for small-scale processing, the need to store CO2 carefully and the fact that it operates at high pressures. The Cannabis SFE • The Cannabis SFE is a flexible and capable material processing system that costs approximately $49,500. • Pros of the system include its smaller footprint, scalable capacity for small and average-size production and effectiveness without the use of “harmful solvents.” • Cons: not appropriate for large scale production, lack of automation for loading between runs, and like the Boss, the need to store CO2 carefully and the fact that it operates at high pressures. Apeks Supercritical CO2 System • The Apeks Supercritical CO2 System is an industrial-grade processing unit, with a price point that starts at $445,000. • Benefits: it is fully automated, its effectiveness for large scale processing jobs and its integrated CO2 storage tank. • Drawbacks of the equipment include its high energy consumption, the need for “extensive scientific expertise” to operate the system and its less than ideal scale for smaller operations. Super C Extractor • The Super C Extractor is an “all-in-one” piece of processing equipment that can be easily expanded and costs approximately $4,000. • Advantages of the system include its ability to effectively process small batches of material as well as the fact that the unit is one of the least expensive of its kind. • Disadvantages of the equipment include its inability to process large volumes of material as well as the likelihood that an operator will need to purchase additional expansion packs to achieve their goals. Alcohol Hemp Extraction — Genius ASAHI Rotary Evaporator • The Genius ASAHI Rotary Evaporator is ideal for commercial use. It uses solvent alcohol to extract cannabinoids and terpenes at low temperatures. It is available in the following sizes: 10 liters, 20 liters, 30 liters, 50 liters, 100 liters, and a whopping 200 liters. • The machine is not entirely on the expensive side; however, the prices vary depending on size. Moreover, the company selling this equipment requires customers to fill out a form before they reveal the price. • Advantages of the rotary evaporator include the ability to extract CBD at low temperatures versus competitor equipment; it is relatively affordable, it is available in many sizes, and is easy to clean and maintain. • On the flip side, the Genius ASAHI Rotary Evaporator requires users to purchase items like chillers and pumps separately, has limited capacity in smaller models, the extraction process is manual, and the machine does not offer much flexibility compared to other models. Butane/Propane Extractors — The PX40 Extraction System • The PX40, or “The Executioner,” is the world’s largest CBD extraction machine, which can process 90 pounds of raw Hemp material per run. • The price for the PX40 or “The Executioner” starts at about $189,000. • The primary advantages of this machine include its ease of use, it requires nominal space to work, it is compatible with hydrocarbons such as propane and butane, high output volume, and is ideal for terpene extraction. • The disadvantages of the PX40 include the use of hydrocarbon solvents that must be removed later in processing hemp, it is complex and very expensive, not ideal for small scale use, and the hydrocarbons require careful handling. Ice Water Extraction — The Eberbach Model E5703 • The Eberbach Model E5703 machine was designed by Eberbach Manufacturing and the confectioner, Mountain High Suckers, as a commercial alternative of ice water extraction. The machine is made from stainless steel and food-grade materials. • The machine costs approximately $15,000 and is ideal for small scale extraction. • Some advantages of the Eberbach Model E5703 include simple operation, cheap to run and maintain, does not use harmful chemicals, and is suitable for small scale use versus commercial production. • On the other hand, the machine has its fair share of cons, which include slow extraction due to the use of ice water, it is still in development, lacks add-ons to scale up production, and there is no data available in public to show its efficiency.